In order to make a company profitable, successful and viable, it is important to manage all its departments competently. This function is performed by the organization’s management system. It includes tools, technologies and methods of influencing resources to obtain the planned result. Management of an enterprise means directing it to the set goal by maximizing the opportunities from the existing resources at its disposal.
The management system of an organization is used to develop, make managerial decisions, communicate them to executors and control their execution. Its functions include:
This complexly constructed entity consists of the following elements:
Management distinguishes five groups of processes that cover the work of any enterprise. They are the objects of the company’s management. They include:
The organizational structure of management is formed by management bodies. They are united with each other by communication channels. Methods, technologies, tools and procedures that determine the ways of influencing the performers form the management mechanism. The management system is considered organized when its boundaries, composition of elements, structure, interaction scheme and functions of each element are defined.
The management system is based on adherence to the following principles:
Responsibility for the implementation of the management principles in the system is assigned to the company managers.
The management system of an organization consists of managing and managed subsystems. The managing part includes the directorate, managers, information elements and services that support the work of management. Otherwise it is called administrative and management apparatus. Its functions include making managerial decisions based on the information received. The managed part includes units involved in the production process and creation of the final product.
The management system goes through the following stages:
When building the management system of an organization, horizontal and vertical links are formed. Horizontal links are established between departments at the same level of management. That is, they are not subordinate to each other. Vertical ones imply subordination of a lower element to a higher one.
Organizational structures are divided into groups:
The following conditions must be met for the successful functioning of a company under the vertical (hierarchical) type of management:
The vertical management structure is based on the pyramid principle. The bottom of the pyramid consists of the lowest positions. The higher the position, the more powers and opportunities its holder has.
Companies with a hierarchical structure are managed by general directors, who are subordinated to their deputies in priority areas. They are followed by middle managers, lower managers and then executives. In organizations with this type of management there are often problems with the execution of assignments because of the long path of information from higher to lower levels. As a result, executives often receive distorted or incomplete information from management.
This type of management is characterized by flexibility and adaptability to changing external conditions. It implies the rejection of hierarchy with the construction of horizontal links between the participants of the work process. By eliminating bureaucracy in the company’s management structure, the path of orders from the manager to the executors is significantly reduced. This allows to reduce the period of coordination and approval of documents, to fulfill the set tasks promptly and qualitatively.
For the effective existence of such a structure it is important to attract initiative and creative performers. They should interact with each other at a high level. Sometimes it is quite problematic to achieve this, especially if the participants of the structure have opposite views on problem solving.
The more diverse the company’s activities, the more complex the organizational structure of management it has. Based on its type, appropriate management methods are applied.
According to the nature of the impact on objects, management methods are:
According to the degree of involvement in the process, management methods are systemic and manual. In systemic processes, direct managerial influence is minimized. Their participants are guided in their work by established rules. They do not need additional instructions or other means of stimulation. The rules are established by laws, regulations or standards developed in the company. Manual management is characterized by the direct participation of the manager in coordinating the actions of subordinates. Without his instructions, performers can not perform any work. This method of management is considered ineffective, since it completely deprives employees of initiative and responsibility for their actions. Therefore, it is resorted to in exceptional cases.
The choice of management methods determines the type of functioning and behavior of workers. It can be:
Based on the principles and specifics of the company’s activities, models of organization management are developed. Currently, two models are used in practical conditions:
Goal management implies organizing the company’s activities by setting intermediate goals. This model is used in organizations that do not have a clear statement of ultimate objectives. Therefore, they have to move from one stage to another, which can cause periodic fluctuations from one line of business to another. This model indicates ineffective operation of the company’s management system.
Change management implies that there is one constant goal, on the way to the realization of which intermediate tasks are performed. In this case, all objectives remain unchanged. Only the standards and technologies of management processes are improved.
To improve the quality of organization of management processes, special electronic applications are used, such as LeaderTask. This is a modern, functional software product designed to solve any issues related to the organization and increase the efficiency of company management.
The following useful features are present in the LeaderTask app:
The program works on all digital platforms. It has all the capabilities to organize company management in the office and remotely. Suitable for individual and team use.
The effectiveness of the company’s management system is evidenced by the balance of centralization and decentralization of power, the ability to adapt to external conditions. The work of such enterprises is not focused on personal needs, but on the needs and interests of the consumer.
Various methods are used to optimize control systems. Examples from practice prove that the best effect in management is achieved by applying an integrated approach together with automation of control processes.
One way to improve the efficiency of company management is to use a theory of constraints approach that does not require a one-time modernization of the system. To do this, one concentrates on individual areas of work. At each of them there is a “weak point” that hinders the fulfillment of tasks. Determine ways to eliminate it. They get rid of it. After solving the identified problem, they find the next “limiter” that hinders the normal development of the company. Thus, they gradually improve the system without resorting to drastic measures.